- Tardiness, truancy, declining grades
- Loss of motivation, energy, self-discipline, interest in activities
- Forgetfulness, short - or long- term
- Short attention span, trouble concentrating
- Aggressive anger, hostility, irritability
- Sullen, uncaring attitudes and behavior
- Disappearance of money, valuables
- Changes in friends, elusiveness about new friends
- Unhealthy appearance, bloodshot eyes
- Changes in personal dress or grooming
- Trouble with the law or authority
- Use of room deodorizers, incense
- Rock group- or drug- related graphics and slogans
- Pipes, small boxes or containers, baggies, rolling papers or other unusual items
- Peculiar odors or butts, seeds, leaves in ash trays, clothing or pockets.
Phases of Chemical UseIn its Drug Decision Directory, St. Leo College described the phases of chemical use and abuse. An adapted form appears here.
Phase 1: Experimental UseDuring experimental use, the user experiences the mood swing, which makes one feel good and can control moods. The user learns through experience to control moods through use and begins to trust that the chemical can reliably deliver a desired effect. The user in this phase can return to feeling normal. The user may never leave this experimental phase user does not seek out the chemical on his/her own, may become a non-user.
*** Most users continue to second phase.***
Phase 2: Social/Recreational UseDuring this phase, the user seeks mood swings and anticipates and plans use. S/he associates the chemical with good times, fun and relaxation. Use may occur in the company of peers, and the user does not get upset when the chemical is not present. S/he can still control the amount of use and the resulting mood, and behavior is generally appropriate during use. On rare occasions, the user may misuse and learn from the experience.
***Most chemical users stay in the social phase, but some users continue on to the third phase.***
Phase 3: Harmful Abuse - Harmful DependencyDuring this phase, a number of harmful consequences occur, including:
- Changing life style, which is typified by
- chemical means more to user than family, friends, etc.
- pre-occupation with use of chemical
- rigid about time and place of use
- broken promises
- ingenuity about getting, keeping and using the chemical
- Trouble follows use of chemical, which may include
- disciplinary action
- traffic violations
- Behavior versus values: As drug taking increases, the frequency of breaking normally accepted rules increases.
- Tolerance develops:
- takes more to get the same effect
- doesn't feel any higher or drunker- but is
- highs aren't as high anymore
- easy to overdose
Harmful Abuse: Chemical use interferes in important areas of the user's life, so the user changes the use or quits to stop the interference. Or, the abuser suffers harmful consequences from chemical use and changes the use or quits so that the consequences will stop. The abuser changes the chemical use to accommodate the life style. I didn't like what it was doing to me, so I quit.
Harmful Dependency: Chemical use interferes in an important area of the abuser's life, but the abuser continues to use in the same way. Abuser suffers harmful consequences from chemical use and increasing pain. The abuser changes life style to accommodate the chemical use.